Thursday, 23 February 2012

Inherently Given

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 91):
… anaphoric elements (those that refer to things mentioned before) and deictic elements (those that are interpreted by reference to the ‘here–and–now’ of the discourse).

Given And New [Defined]

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 91):
The significant variable is: information that is presented by the speaker as recoverable (Given) or not recoverable (New) to the listener. … One form of ‘newness’ that is frequent in dialogue is contrastive emphasis

Grammatical Information Vs Mathematical Information

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 89):
Information, in this technical grammatical sense, is the tension between what is already known or predictable and what is new or unpredictable. This is different from the mathematical concept of information, which is the measure of unpredictability.

The Information Unit

Halliday & Matthiessen (2004: 88):
[informationis a system not of the clause, but of a separate grammatical unit, the information unit. The information unit is a unit that is parallel to the clause and the other units belonging to the same rank scale as the clause: clause group/phrase word morpheme. Since it is parallel with the clause (and the units the clause consists of), it is variable in extent in relation to the clause and may extend over more than one clause or less than one clause; but in the unmarked case it is co-extensive with the clause.